HiPIMS Plasma

HiPIMS PlasmaA method for physical vapour deposition of thin films, High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS), or High-Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering, uses extremely high power densities in short pulses of tens of microseconds at low duty cycle. The sputtered metal features a high degree of ionisation and a high rate of molecular gas dissociation, which result in high density deposited films. In HiPIMS, there is a need to measure time-resolved ion flux, neutral to ion ratio and degree of ionisation at substrate. It is also important to distinguish metal ions from background gas such as helium or argon.


Semion Sensors

The Semion Sensor measures the uniformity of ion energies hitting a surface in a plasma chamber.

SE04/LP08: Plasma diagnostics of low pressure HiPIMS assisted by ECWR plasma
This study focuses on the plasma measurement of parameters to explore the assistance of the electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) on the evolution of HiPIMS discharge, where it has several benefits. High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) refers to DC-pulse modulated magnetron discharges operated at low repetition frequencies, with short-duty cycles of about 1%. It belongs in the family of ionized physical vapour deposition (IPVD) techniques.

SE05: Semion retarding field energy analyzer used to investigate reactive HiPIMS + MF sputtering of TiO₂ crystalline thin films
High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) systems have been previously studied with mid-frequency (MF) plasma excitation, utilizing the “off” period to enhance the deposition rate, decrease the working pressure, and improve HiPIMS plasma generation. Our latest application note looks at the time-resolved ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) in a high-power pulse plasma in three modes of excitation: pure HiPIMS, medium-frequency pulsed bipolar (MF 350 kHz) and hybrid pulsed HiPIMS + MF.

SE06: Semion Retarding Field Energy Analyser (RFEA) used in a study to form Ti–Cu thin films with regard to controlling the copper release
Serious complications in orthopaedic surgery include aseptic loosening and infection of artificial implants. A number of studies have looked at ways to reduce these complications, and copper has been found to be one of the most promising metal ions for deposition applications because of its lower toxicity and higher cytocompatibility. Various studies have shown that sufficient (about 5 mmol/l) copper release over at least several days is needed to inhibit and then kill all bacteria. This study aimed to prepare Ti–Cu film with strong initial antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect, followed by long-lasting but moderate copper release using HiPIMS-based systems.

SE07: Semion used in a study of the effect of mid-frequency discharge assistance on dual-high power impulse magnetron sputtering
This study introduces a hybrid-dual-HiPIMS system based on the simultaneous combination of dual-HiPIMS and MF discharges. The main body of the study is the time-resolved diagnostics taken using a Semion System during the deposition of Ti–Cu films, revealing the degree of assistance made by the MF discharge.


Vertex Sensors

The Vertex Sensor measures the angle of ions hitting a surface inside a plasma reactor to analyse ion angle uniformity.


Quantum Sensors

The Quantum is a unique instrument to measure the ratio of ions to neutrals hitting a surface inside a plasma reactor.


Species Sensors

The Species Sensor measures the uniformity of ion species (mass) hitting a surface in a plasma chamber.



Langmuir Probes

The Langmuir Probe measures plasma parameters such as floating potential, plasma potential, plasma density, ion current density and electron energy distribution function.

SE04/LP08: Plasma diagnostics of low pressure HiPIMS assisted by ECWR plasma
This study focuses on the plasma measurement of parameters to explore the assistance of the electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) on the evolution of HiPIMS discharge, where it has several benefits. High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) refers to DC-pulse modulated magnetron discharges operated at low repetition frequencies, with short-duty cycles of about 1%. It belongs in the family of ionized physical vapour deposition (IPVD) techniques.

LP09: Langmuir Single Probe used in determining the temporal evolution of negative ion density in the afterglow of reactive HiPIMS of titanium in an argon/oxygen gas mixture
This study used a Langmuir Single Probe to determine the temporal evolution of the oxygen negative ion and electron densities during the offtime of a reactive HiPIMS discharge operating in argon–oxygen gas mixtures. The aim of the study was to add to the knowledge base information about oxygen negative ion dynamics that will help many plasma processing methods.


Plato Probes

The Plato Probe is a planar Langmuir Probe designed to work in deposition plasmas when an insulating film is deposited on the probe surface. This deposition tolerant Langmuir Probe can remain inside a plasma reactor while aggressive insulating gasses are in use.

PP01: Characterization of HiPIMS plasma via process compatible measurement probe
This study looks at the characterization of a HiPIMS plasma using a process compatible plasma measurement probe which can be used in situations which require measurements at a fast time resolution, where in some cases the application may be depositing insulating layers.


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